Basic Guide To Cutting Tool Materials (How To Choose)

Basic guide to cutting tool materials

Depending on what kind of cutting tool one is using, the cutting efficiency, speed, and results are determined. This is a well-researched and reasonable process that impacts processing cost, tool consumption, surface quality, and size of the machining accuracy. Tool steel suppliers in India recommend understanding the materials to be cut as the prior step in selecting the cutting tool materials. The use of cutting tool materials also works as a highly influential factor for developing work piece items.


Types of cutting tool materials: There are various types of cutting tool materials, and some of them are – high speed steel grades include – M2, M35 & M42, carbide, hard alloys, tool steel like D2, and Powder Metallurgy Grades.


Properties essential in cutting tools: The cutting procedure involves immense pressure, impactful force, and friction resulting in high temperatures. Therefore, tool steel suppliers in India advice using the right tool steel for the task. The material used should have high melting point, that is, it should be able to endure excessively high temperature. Carbon steel such as high speed steel is an excellent choice for cutting tool material because of its mechanical property of retaining its original form at high temperatures. Since it constantly comes in contact with other hard metals, an environment of friction is obvious. Inappropriate cutting tools will result in breakage of the material, leaving the task unfinished. Therefore, cutting tools that exhibit high levels of hardness, robustness and toughness are great choices.


Resistance against high heat: Heat is another determining factor behind measuring the efficiency of a cutting tool. Thermal hardness or high hardness, high temperatures, unparalleled strength, and toughness are a few qualities that a cutting tool material must possess. The higher the hardness of cutting tool material, the higher will be its heat resistance. It allows an excellent cutting speed while making sure that there is no deformation of the material. Besides, the cutting tool should also have resistance against oxidation at excessively high temperatures. Outstanding anti-diffusion and anti-bonding qualities are a bonus.


Thermal shock resistance and thermal physical properties: If the cutting tool have better thermal conductivity, the cutting heat is easily conducted from the cutting area. This ensures that the temperature of the cutting portion of the tool area remains low and helps in reducing abrasion. Tool steel suppliers in India state that cutting tools are often used with cutting fluid. This can induce thermal shock and makes the material vulnerable to cracks and fractures. However, if the material has enough thermal shock resistance properties, then the fluid will make the cutting process smoother instead of acting as a hindrance.


Hardness and wear resistance: High Rockwell figure, red hardness, and retention of original form against wears and tears are a few of the basic properties that every cutting tool material must have. The high hardness of carbide tools, for instance, ranges between 89 – 93 HRC. To be qualified as a cutting tool, the HRC of the material must be above 60.


These are some general information that one must remember while selecting cutting tool materials. Nonetheless, the area of application will also determine the type of cutting tool to be used.